Authoritative Parenting Style and Associated Effects

78631212Parents with an authoritative tendency try to encourage the child to be assertive while maintaining their own assertiveness via directive acts (Baumrind, 1991).  According to Baumrind (1966; 1968; 1991), authoritative parents set standards, monitor the child’s behavior, are assertive but not intrusive or restrictive, and will encourage the child to be assertive and cooperative.  Verbal give and take is encouraged, and the reason behind every policy is shared with the child.  Autonomous self-will, and disciplined conformity is encouraged, but behavioral divergence does not cause the child to be hemmed in with restrictions.  The authoritative parent recognizes his/her own special rights as an adult, but also acknowledges the child’s individual interests and special ways. The authoritative parent affirms the child’s present qualities, but also sets standards for their future conduct.  Decisions are not based on group consensus, or the child’s desires; but the parent recognizes himself/herself as neither infallible, nor divinely inspired.

Adolescents who were products of authoritative parenting are highly psychosocially competent and mature (Lamborn, Mounts, Steinberg & Dornbusch, 1991), psychosocially well adjusted (Lamborn et al., 1991), have less anxiety and depression (Radziszewska, Richardson, Dent, & Flay, 1996), and also increased self reliance (Steinberg, Mounts, Lamborn, & Dornbusch, 1991).  They understand that their opinions are valued, and thus learnt how to negotiate and engage in discussions.  Hence, they were more likely to become socially competent, responsible, and autonomous (Kopko, 2007).  Longitudinal studies have also shown that children of authoritative parents were associated with positive outcomes when they mature to become emerging adults, including areas of competence, resilience (Masten, Burt, Roisman, Obradovic, Long, & Tellegen, 2004), self-esteem and self actualization (Buri, Louiselle, & Misukanis, 1988).

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